LIDAR annotation is available to Enterprise customers only.
If you’re interested in using Studio’s LIDAR annotation capabilities, please contact the team at [email protected].
In this task, labelers view outputs from a series of LIDAR frames, along with optional radar and camera data, and annotate where different objects exist in the 3D space with 3D cuboids.
In this document, we’ll introduce you to the following concepts:
- Tooling and Common Shortcuts Overview
- Common Labeling Workflow
API documentation: https://docs.scale.com/reference/lidar-annotation-annotation
You can find a list of all shortcuts with their definitions in the bottom-left of the tasking screen. Below, we explain the most commonly used shortcuts.
|Tool / Term||Definition|
|WASD||If you have not selected a cuboid, these keys will move the camera:|
- W - Forward
- A - Left
- S - Back
- D - Right
If you have selected a cuboid, these keys will move the cuboid. Note, if you select shift + WASD, you'll notice that cuboid will move in smaller increments.
|Arrow keys||If you have not selected a cuboid, the arrow keys will pan you around the scene.|
If you have selected a cuboid, these keys will change the heading of the cuboid.
|plus (+) / minus (-)||These keys will move you forward (+) and backward (-) across frames.|
|T||Enter top down view. We generally suggest that labelers draw cuboids starting from top down view.|
|C||Toggle between camera view and LiDAR view. Note, you can also click on any of the image frames at the bottom of the screen to review a specific frame.|
|N||Cycle through cuboids when reviewing a task.|
|Cuboid Views||Select a cuboid to see different views (top, side, back etc.)|
This is particularly helpful when making minor sizing and positioning changes.
|Point Density (aggregated point cloud, or APC)||Aggregate points from multiple frames into one frame. You can also increase point density:|
- Larger numbers: Greater density
- Smaller numbers: Lower density
This tool is helpful for:
- Finding stationary (non-moving) objects
- Finding dynamic tracks / moving objects
- Correctly sizing and placing cuboids for stationary objects
|Color by||Color by different features of the LiDAR scene, such as:|
- Cuboid ID
- Bottom Z
|Points >> Size||Increase the point size.|
|Points >> Brightness||Increase the brightness.|
|Points >> Intensity||Increase the point intensity.|
|Keyframes||These are the frames where you change one or many features of a cuboid.|
Keyframes mark the start and end of interpolated (predicted frames.)
|Interpolation||This is a key tool to use for annotating moving objects since it will help you annotate them quickly and accurately via prediction.|
Note that the first keyframe you draw should be in the frame where you can see the object as clearly as possible - not necessarily the first or last frame.
It is best to draw a keyframe every few frames, and to check the predicted frames to see that the cuboid follows the object well (see example below.)
|Directional Heading||The direction that the object / cuboid is facing.|
To ensure your directional heading is correct, make sure the front of the object faces the top of the screen. The colored side should always correspond to the front of the object.
You can adjust the directional heading in any of the following ways:
1. Drag and drop the heading in the Overhead LiDAR View in the cuboid detail panel
2. Use the Rotate 90 degree or Rotate 180 degrees buttons under the LiDAR Views in the cuboid detail panel
3. Use SHIFT with the Left or Right arrow keys
4. Click a cuboid and press the Left or Right arrow keys
|Bottom Z Index or Bottom Z Coordinate||The location / height where the cuboid is placed.|
More important in some projects than others.
Please see visual examples below:
- Carefully read the project instructions
- Look at all camera views to better understand the scene
- Review LiDAR view to gain additional scene context
- Work on one object at a time, dropping cuboids in topdown view. In order to drop a cuboid, you'll need to click the mouse and then drag and drop over the object. Make sure that the heading of the cuboid aligns with the top of your screen.
- Carefully set label and attributes (if applicable) in each frame. Size and position the cuboid accordingly.
Remember that by clicking on each cuboid, you can see different views (e.g. side, overhead) and adjust the cuboid(s) accordingly.
If you need to adjust the cuboid, you can use the WASD / Shift + WASD keys, arrow keys and Shift + arrow keys.
6. Use APC and move back and forth across the scene to check for overall quality. Make adjustments as needed.
Updated about 1 year ago